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[试卷交流] 中科院2001年考博英语试题

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发表于 2009-4-13 16:54:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
考生须知:
      一、本次考试题卷由试卷一(PAPER ONE)和试卷二(PAPER TWO)两部分组成。 试卷一为90道
        客观题,答卷使用标准化机读答题纸;试卷二为主观题,答卷使用另一答题纸。
      二、请一律用HB或2B铅笔涂写标准化机读答题纸,修改时请用橡皮擦干净。若误用其它笔
        种而导致计算机无法识别,责任由考生自负。
      三、请按答题注意事项要求逐项填涂标准化机读答题纸。涂写不得过细或过短。
      四、请保持标准化机读答题纸清洁、无折皱。切忌折叠。
      五、本考卷满分为100分,全部考试时间总计180分钟。分值及时间分布如下:

      试卷一:  听力   15 分 20分钟
           结构词汇 15 分 25分钟
           综合填空 15 分 15分钟
           阅读   30 分 60分钟   小计75分 120分钟
      试卷二: 汉译英  10 分 25分钟
           写作   15 分 35分钟   小计25分 60分钟


             The Chinese Academy of Sciences

          English Entrance Examination-For Doctoral Candidates

      March 2001

      PAPER ONE

      PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (20 minutes, 15 points)

      (略)

      PART II STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY (25 minutes, 15 points)

      Section A (0.5 point each)

      Directions: Choose the word or expression below each sentence that best
      completes the statement, and mark the corresponding letter of your choice
      with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring
      Answer Sheet.

      16. He gave me a lot of help in my work, so I have to my success to him.

      A. grant B. ascribe C. commit D. submit

      17.It is well known that the first can only work hard planting young trees
      for a new business, while the following people may obtain the successful
      fruits.

      A. practitioners B. amateurs C. forerunners D. managers

      18. The honest journalist has kept investigating that high rank official
      for a long time, and he felt very happy when that fellow’s corrupt scandal
      at last.

      A. got to light B. stood in light C. came to light D. looked in light

      19. The Minister’s answer let to an outcry from the Opposition.

      A. impressive B. evasive C. intensive D. amusive

      20. The old gentleman to be an old friend of his grandfather’s.

      A. turned in B. turned over C. turned up D. turned out

      21. The rules stated that anyone who had held office for three years was
      not for re-election.

      A. admirable B. eligible C. reliable D. capable

      22. I feel very sad that the young man’s energetic initiative with nothing
      in the experiment, for he met a lot of interference from the powerful
      authority.

      A. burned up B. tuned up C. pushed up D. ended up

      23. We were politely an armed guard and warned not to take pictures.

      A. assigned B. allowed C. accepted D. assisted

      24.The recovery and of the country’s economy has also been accompanied by
      increasing demands for high quality industrial sites in attractive
      locations.

      A. renewal B. revival C. recession D. relief

      25. In fact the purchasing power of a single person’s pension in Hong Kong
      was only 70 per cent of the value of the Singapore pension.

      A. equivalent B. similar C. consistent D. identical

      26. It seems a reasonable rule of thumb that any genuine offer of help and
      support from people or organizations will be accompanied by a name and
      address, and a willingness to be as to their motive in making contact.

      A. seen through B. checked out C. touched on D. accounted to

      27. According to *** boxing reporter Mike Costello, just as there is
      worldwide with boxing, so there is worldwide opposition.

      A. passion B. attraction C. emotion D. fascination

      28. Although there are several variations on the exact format that
      worksheets can take, they are all similar in their aspects.

      A. potential B. social C. essential D. partial

      29. any advice which you can get from the interviewer and follow up
      suggestions for improving your presentation and qualifications.

      A. Take the most of B. Keep the most of C.Have the most of D.Make the most
      of ’

      30. There is a loss of self-confidence, a sense of personal failure, great
      anger and a feeling of being utterly .

      A. let alone B. let out C. let down D. let on

      31. Japan remains tied to the Western camp partly because the relationship
      has become to her economy and politics over forty years’ association.

      A. integral B. unilateral C. rational D. hierarchical

      32. With most online recruitment services, jobseekers must choose their
      words carefully the search engine will never make the correct match.

      A. because B. whereas C. provided D. otherwise

      33. The child should always the same basic procedure: seeing the whole
      word--hearing and pronouncing--writing from memory.

      A. go through B. take over C. respond to D. carry off’

      34. That MGM Grand Youth Center is open to children 3-12 years old what
      hotel they are staying in.

      A. regardless in B. regardless of C. regardless on D. regardless from

      35. Ever since Geoffrey sent a sizeable cheque to a well-known charity
      he’s been with requests for money from all sides.

      A. devastated B. smashed C. bombarded D. cracked

      Section B (0.5 point each)

      Directions: In each of the following sentences there are four parts
      underlined and marked A, B, C, and D. Indicate which Of the four parts is
      incorrectly used. Mark the corresponding letter of your choice by drawing
      a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer
      Sheet.

      36. The opinion polls were showing(A) 76 percent of the responders( more
      concerned about the shambles of American education(C) than about any other
      problem on(D) the political agenda.

      37. Kenny G is not a musician(A) I really had much of ( an opinion about
      him(C) until recently(D).

      38. I was twenty-five years old, and I’d just been laid down(A) from my
      job as division( manager at(C) a mortgage banking(D) firm.

      39. We knew so little(A) about equipments( , disposal(C) techniques, the
      whole thing(D).

      40. It was so disgusted(A), and somewhat hazardous( , not to mention(C) a
      huge hassle and monetary expense(D).

      41. Of course, I am aware of(A) what he has played since( , the success he
      has had(C), and the controversy(D) has surrounded him among musicians and
      serious listeners.

      42. That抯 not saying(A) it’s easy, though( . There are definitely(C) jobs
      that wore on(D) you.

      43. Perhaps not surprisingly(A), the colleagues whom I thought less high(
      , and whom I portrayed less admiringly(C), did not share my view(D).

      44. The Times, financially(A) successful it may be( , is a powerful
      but(C), at this moment, not very healthy institution(D).

      45. Having imposed temporary sentences(A) of unprecedented( severity on
      the five defendants who pleaded guilt(C), the judge told them that their
      actual sentences might depend on their cooperation with(D) subsequent
      investigations.

      PART III CLOZE TEST (15 minutes, 15 points)

      Directions: For each blank in the following passage, choose the best
      answer from the four choices given in the opposite column. Mark the
      corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square
      brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.

      When we think about addiction to drags or alcohol, we frequently focus on
      negative aspects, ignoring the pleasures that accompany drinking or
      drug-taking. 46 the essence of any serious addiction is a pursuit of
      pleasure, a search for a "high" that normal life does not 47 . It is only
      the inability to function 48 the addictive substance that is dismaying,
      the dependence of the organism upon a certain experience and a .49
      inability to function normally without it. Thus a person will take two or
      three 50 at the end of the day not merely for the pleasure drinking
      provides, but also because he "doesn’t feel 51 without them..

      52 does not merely pursue a pleasurable experience and need to 53 it in
      order to function normally. He needs to repeat it again and again.
      Something about that particular experience makes life without it 54
      complete. Other potentially pleasurable experiences are no longer
      possible, 55 under the spell of the addictive experience, his life is
      peculiarly 56. The addict craves an experience and yet he is never really
      satisfied. The organism may be 57 _sated, but soon it begins to crave
      again.

      Finally a serious addiction is58 a harmless pursuit of pleasure by Its
      distinctly destructive elements. A heroin addict, for instance, leads a 59
      life: his increasing need for heroin in increasing doses prevents him from
      working, from maintaining relationships, from developing in human ways. 60
      an alcoholic’s life is narrowed and dehumanized by his dependence on
      alcohol.

      46. A. Hence B. Because C. And yet D. Moreover

      47. A. supply B. resume C. accept D. prevent

      48. A. except B. without C. with D. besides

      49. A. frustrating B. surprising C. unchanging D. increasing

      50. A. drags B. drinks C. doses D. draughts

      51. A. normal B. content C. delighted D. spirited

      52. A. A drugtaker B. The addicted C. An addict D. The drugger

      53. A. perform B. make C. experience D. initiate

      54. A. other than B. rather than C. more than D. less than

      55. A. while B. thus C. even if D. for

      56. A. distorted B. rectified C. exaggerated D. improved

      57. A. eventually B. temporarily C. accordingly D. subsequently

      58. A. identical with B. consistent with C.separated from D.distinguished
      from

      59. A. destructive B. Dissatisfied C. damaged D. derivative

      60. A. Similarly B. Conversely C. Naturally D. Generally

      PART IV READING COMPREHENSION (60 minutes, 30 points)

      Directions: Below each of the following passages you will find some
      questions or incomplete statements. Each question or statement is followed
      by four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Read each passage carefully, and
      then select the choice that best answers the question or completes the
      statement. Mark the letter of your choice with a single bar across the
      square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.

      Passage 1

      It took no time at all for the native Americans who first greeted
      Christopher Columbus to be all but erased from the face of the earth. For
      about a thousand years the peaceful people known as the Taino had thrived
      in modem-day Cuba and many other islands. But less than 30 years after
      Columbus’ arrival, the Taino would be destroyed by Spanish weaponry,
      forced labor and European diseases. Unlike their distant cousins, the
      Inca, Aztecs and Maya, the Taino left no pyramids or temples-no obvious
      signs that they had ever existed.

      But it is a mistake to assume-as many scholars have until quite recently
      that the absence of abundant artifacts meant the Taino were necessarily
      more primitive than the grander civilizations of Central and South
      America. They simply used less durable materials: the Taino relied on wood
      for building and most craftwork, and much of what they made has
      disintegrated over the centuries. However, thanks largely to two
      remarkable digs undertaken recently, archaeologists will be able to enrich
      their knowledge of the Taino.

      In a village on the northern coast of Cuba, a Canadian-Cuban team
      discovered the nearly intact remains of a Taino dwelling buried in the
      dirt. This site may have been one of the Taino’s major centers. Meanwhile,
      deep in the forests of the Dominican Republic, a U.S.-Dominican team has
      also made an important discovery: a 240-ft.-deep Taino cenote, or
      ceremonial well, where hundreds of objects .thrown in as offerings have
      been preserved in the oxygen-poor Water.

      It will take a much longer time to understand the Taino fully, but they
      have been rescued from the ignoble status of footnotes in the chapter of
      history that began with the arrival of Columbus.

      61. The main idea of Paragraph 1 is

      A. Christopher Columbus returned the Taino’s greeting with cruelty.

      B. The Europeans’ coming brought an end to the existence of the Taino.

      C. The Taino once prosperous in modem-day Cuba now has no trace on earth.

      D. Spanish weaponry would have crashed the Taino but for Columbus’
arrival.

      62. It is assumed the Taino had a comparatively low civilization mostly
      because

      A. the Taino had produced no written records.

      B. the Taino had built no pyramids mid temples.

      C. there has been little wooden structure the Taino relied on.

      D. there has been few remains showing the life of the Taino’s.

      63. Which statement is true concerning the Taino?

      A. They were enslaved by foreign invaders.

      B. They were more warlike than other Indians.

      C. They were the most short-lived of all the civilizations.

      D. They were buried deep in the dirt or oxygen-poor water.

      64. What does the italicized word "ignoble" (in the last sentence)
      probably mean?

      A. unfortunate B. unsuccessful C. unpromising D. unworthy

      Passage 2

      Already lasers can obliterate skin blemishes, topically applied drugs can
      smooth facial lines and injected agents can remove deep wrinkles. Future
      products will be faster, borer and longer lasting. "New substances will be
      developed by entrepreneurs," says Brian Mayou, an aesthetic plastic
      surgeon, "that will be more successful than liquid silicone that we use
      today to eradicate wrinkles." The next major breakthrough, says Mel
      Brahmn, plastic surgeon and chief executive of the Harley Medical Group,
      will be laser treatment that needs no recovery period.

      Nicholas Lowe, clinical professor of dermatology at the University of Los
      Angeles, adds: "There will be more efficient anti-oxidants to help reduce
      sun damage and aging. There will also be substances that increase the
      production of new collagen and elastic tissue to maintain the elasticity
      of youthful skin."

      Lee Shreider, a research cosmetic chemist, says that we may be able to
      look better without any kind of operation as semi-permanent make-up gets
      better.

      "Crooked noses will be improved by effectively sealing on shaded colors
      that either enhance or subdue areas of the face. We will be able to
      straighten eyebrows and lips making the face more symmetrical-which
      remains one of the keys to beauty~and even close blocked pores with
      permanent, custom-designed foundation."

      The development of the safe sun tan is a potential gold mine. Being
      researched at the University of Arizona, but a long way from reality, is
      the injectable tan. Professor Lowe is optimistic: "There will almost
      certainly be a safe way of developing a sunless tan that protects against
      sun damage. In animal research, we’ve applied creams to guinea pigs that
      can actually ’turn on’ some of the genes that produce pigmentation without
      any sunlight exposure."

      65. What is the main topic of the passage?

      A. Inventions in cosmetology.

      B. New discovery in face-filling.

      C. A bright future for facial make-up.

      D. The development of beauty culture.

      66. According to the passage, what has been used to remove deep wrinkles?

      A. Applied drugs.

      B. Liquid silicone.

      C. Laser treatment.

      D. Anti-oxidant.

      67. Paragraph 4 suggests that one could improve effectively one’s
      appearance concerning the nose, eyebrows, lips, etc.

      A. by applying certain lotions.

      B. by having a beauty operation.

      C. by changing the face shape.

      D. by blocking several pores.

      68. As implied in the last paragraph, the injectable tan is being
      researched to meet the demand of the people who

      A. refuse to be exposed to the sun.

      B. refuse to apply suntan creams.

      C. want to get a tan for beauty.

      D. want to try gene pigmentation.

      Passage 3

      There are faults which age releases us from, and there are virtues, which
      turn to vices with the lapse of years. The worst of these is thrift, which
      m early and middle life is wisdom and duty to practice for a provision
      against destitution. As time goes on this virtue is apt to turn into the
      ugliest, cruelest, shabbiest of the vices. Then the victim of it finds
      himself storing past all probable need of saving for himself or those next
      him, to the deprivation of the remoter kin of the race. In the earlier
      time when gain was symbolized by gold or silver, the miser had a sensual
      joy in the touch, of his riches, m hearing the coins clink In their fall
      through his fingers, and m gloating upon their increase sensible to the
      hand and eye. Then the miser had his place among the great figures of
      misdoing; he was of a dramatic effect, like a murderer or a robber; and
      something of this bad distinction clung to him even when his coins had
      changed to paper currency, the clean, white notes of the only English
      bank, or the greenbacks of our innumerable banks of issue; but when the
      sense of fiches had been transmuted to the balance in his favor at his
      banker’s, or the bonds in his drawer at the safety-deposit vault, all
      splendor had gone out of his ~ice. His bad eminence was gone, but he clung
      to the lust of gain which had ranked trim with the picturesque
      wrong-doers, and which only ruin from without could save him from, unless
      he gave his remnant of strength to saving himself from it. Most aging men
      are sensible of all this, but few have the frankness of that aging man who
      once said that he who died rich died disgraced, and died the other day in
      the comparative poverty of fifty millions.

      69. This short passage is mainly to tell that

      A. man becomes increasingly greedy when getting old.

      B. a miser can be honest if he does no wrong act.

      C. age can help convert some virtue into a vice.

      D. misers all started from trying to be thrifty.

      70. According to the passage, one is thought vicious when he

      A. gathers up money at the sacrifice of all his family members.

      B. practices endless thrifty to guard his people from poverty.

      C. stores continuously for his own and his relatives’ needs.

      D. saves too much but wouldn’t spend it for the necessary.

      71. The italicized expression "gloating upon" probably means

      A. thinking with slight guilt.

      B. seeing with much satisfaction.

      C. touching with great awe.

      D. hearing with little delight.

      72. The passage implies that what could stop a miser from lusting for
      money might be

      A. his frankness.

      B. his eminence.

      C. his death.

      D. his glory.

      73. The words "in the comparative poverty of fifty millions" at the end of
      the passage suggests a notion that

      A. stinginess may cause a very rich man to die very pitiful.

      B. rich people may still take 50 million as comparatively little.

      C. one remains discontent with all he’s gained until his death.

      D. the rich are inconsiderate of the majority that live in poverty.

      Passage 4

      If a mother pushes her small son in a swing, giving only a light force
      each time he returns, eventually he will be swinging quite high. The child
      can do this for himself by using his legs to increase the motion, but both
      the mother’s push and the child’s leg movements must occur at the proper
      moment, or the extent of the swing will not increase. In physics,
      increasing the swing is increasing the amplitude; the length of the rope
      on the swing determines its natural oscillation period. This ability of an
      object to move periodically or to vibrate when stimulated by a force
      operating in its natural period is called resonance.

      Resonance is observed many times without consciously thinking about it;
      for example, one may find an annoying vibration or shimmy in an
      automobile, caused by a loose engine mount vibrating with increasing
      amplitude because of an out-of-round tire. The bulge on the tire slaps the
      pavement with each revolution; at the natural resonance point~ of the
      engine mount, it will begin to vibrate. Such vibrations can result in
      considerable damage if allowed to persist. Anther destructive example of
      resonance is the shattering of a crystal goblet by the production of a
      musical tone at the natural resonant point of the goblet. The energy of
      the sound waves causes vibration in the glass; as its amplitude increases,
      the motion in the glass exceeds the elasticity of the goblet, and it
      shatters.

      An instrument called a tachometer makes use of the principle of resonance.
      It consists of many tiny bars, loosely fastened together and arranged so
      that each bar can slide independently of the others. Movement of the bars
      causes changes in a dial. When placed next to a rotating motor or engine,
      the tachometer picks up slight vibrations which are transferred to the
      resonant bars. These bars begin to move, and the resulting dial may be
      read to find the revolutions per minute of the motor very quickly.

      74. An object, if moving rhythmically when stimulated in a natural period,
      is said to

      A. vibrate. B. resonate.C. swing.D. oscillate.

      75. The distance a swing moves from its resting position is called its

      A. revolution.B. movement.C. frequency.D. amplitude.

      76. A tachometer is an instrument that uses resonance to determine

      A. the speed of a motor in revolutions.

      B. the frequency at which a motor vibrates.

      C. the amplitude of an engine that oscillates.

      D. the changes in a dial within a car engine.

      77. An annoying vibration can be caused at the natural resonance of the
      car’s engine mount

      A. if the engine moves too fast. B. if the engine’s amplitude increases.
      C. if a tire gets out of balance. D. if a damage occurs in the engine.

      78. In which of the following cases is it useful to consider the
      relationship between the length of an oscillating object and its natural
      period?

      A. Adjusting the speed of a car. B. Adjusting a clock pendulum.
      C. Adjusting tire balance. D. Adjusting engine mounts.

      Passage 5

      I was introduced to the concept of literacy animator in Oladumi Arigbede’s
      (1994) article on high illiteracy rates among women and school dropout
      rates among girls. According to Arigbede, literacy animators view their
      role as assisting in the self-liberating development of people in the
      world who are struggling for a more meaningful life. Animators are a
      family of deeply concerned and committed people whose gut-level rejection
      of mass human pauperization compels them to intervene on the side of the
      marginalized. Their motivation is not derived from a love of literacy as
      merely another technical life skill, and they accept that literacy is
      never culturally or ideologically neutral.

      Arigbede writes from her experiences as an animator working with women and
      men in Nigeria. She believes that literacy animators have to make a clear
      choice about whose culture and whose ideology will be fostered among those
      with whom they work. Do literacy educators in the United States consider
      whether the instruction they pursue conflicts with their students’
      traditional cultures or community, or fosters illiteracies in learners’
      first or home languages or dialects and in their orality?

      Some approaches to literacy instruction represent an ideology of
      individualism, control, and competition. Consider, for example, the
      difference in values conveyed and represented when students engage in
      choral reading versus the practice of having one student read out loud to
      the group. To identify as a literacy animator is to choose the ideology of
      "sharing, solidarity, love, equity, co-operation with and respect of both
      nature and other human beings". Literacy pedagogy that matches the
      animator ideology works on maintaining the languages and cultures of
      millions of minority children who at present are being forced to accept
      the language and culture of the dominant group. It might lead to
      assessment that examines the performance outcomes of a community of
      literacy learners and the social significance of their uses of literacy,
      as opposed to measuring what an individual can do as a reader and writer
      on a standardized test. Shor (1993) describes literacy animators as
      problem-posing, community-based, dialogic educators. Do our
      teacher-education textbooks on reading and language arts promote the idea
      that teachers should explore problems from a community-based dialogic
      perspective?

      79. A literacy animator is one who

      A. struggles for a more meaningful life.

      B. frees people from poverty and illiteracy.

      C. is committed to marginalize the illiterate.

      D. is concerned with what is behind illiteracy.

      80. The author suggests that literacy educators in the US in a way

      A. promote students’ home languages.

      B. force students to accept their culture.

      C. teach nothing but reading and writing.

      D. consider literacy as of non-neutral nature.

      81. Arigbede worked with Nigerians probably to

      A. teach American customs and ideology.

      B. make a choice of culture to be fostered.

      C. reject the values of the dominant class.

      D. help maintain Nigerian language and culture.

      82. According to the author, "choral reading" may represent

      A. individualism.B. collectivism.C. competition.D. immersion.

      83. Animator ideology emphasizes more

      A. the social function of literacy.

      B. students?performance in tests.

      C. the dominant group’s language.

      D. the attainment of life skills.

      84. It is implied by the author that, because of the kind of teacher
      education in the US, teachers there tend to ignore

      A. constant development of new teaching approaches.

      B. using their own wisdom in problem-solving.

      C. talented performances of minority students.

      D. community-based literacy enhancement.

      Passage 6

      Scientists have known for more than two, decades that cancer is a disease
      of the genes. Something scrambles the DNA inside a nucleus, and suddenly,
      instead of dividing in a measured fashion, a cell begins to copy itself
      furiously. Unlike an ordinary cell, it never stops. But describing the
      process isn’t the same as figuring it out. Cancer cells are so radically
      different from normal ones that it’s almost impossible to untangle the
      sequence of events that made them that way. So for years researchers have
      been attacking the problem by taking normal cells and trying to determine
      what changes will turn them cancerous-always without success.

      According to a report in the current issue of Nature, a team of scientists
      based at M.I.T.’s Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research has finally
      managed to make human cells malignant---a feat they accomplished with two
      different cell types by inserting just three altered genes into their DNA.
      While these manipulations were done only in lab dishes and won’t lead to
      any immediate treatment, they appear to be a crucial step in understanding
      the disease. This is a "landmark paper," wrote Jonathan Weitzman and Moshe
      Yaniv of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, in an accompanying commentary.

      The dramatic new result traces back to a breakthrough in 1983, when the
      Whitehead’s Robert Weinberg and colleagues showed that mouse cells would
      become cancerous when subjected to two altered genes. But when they tried
      such alterations on human cells, they didn’t work. Since then, scientists
      have learned that mouse cells differ from human cells in an important
      respect: they have higher levels of an enzyme called telomerase. That
      enzyme keeps caplike structures called telomeres on the ends of
      chromosomes from getting shorter with each round of cell division. Such
      shortening is part of a cell’s aging process, and since cancer cells keep
      dividing forever, the Whitehead group reasoned that making human cells
      more mouselike might also make them cancerous.

      The strategy worked. The scientists took connective-tissue and kidney
      cells and introduce three altered genes---one that makes cells divide
      rapidly; another that disables two substances meant to rein in excessive
      division; and a third that promotes the production of telomerase, which
      made the cells essentially immortal. They’d created a tumor in a test
      tube. "Some people believed that telomerase wasn’t that important," says
      the Whitehead’s William Hahn, the study’s lead author. "This allows us to
      say with some certainty that it is."

      85. The problem that has been annoying cancer researchers for years is the
      difficulty in telling

      A. how cancer cells are formed.

      B. why cancer cells never stop dividing.

      C. why normal cells can mm into cancer cells.

      D. how different normal cells are from cancer cells.

      86. Whitehead’s scientists have succeeded in

      A. developing malignant cells in human bodies.

      B. making normal human cells cancerous.

      C. controlling the change of human cells.

      D. changing the genes of cancer cells.

      87. In the 1983 experiment, human cells didn’t work the way mouse cells
      did because the former

      A. were easier to become aged.

      B. checked telomerase in dividing.

      C. had short ends of chromosomes.

      D. lacked telomeres for cell division.

      88. To make human cells more mouselike scientists tried

      A. to subject them to two more genes.

      B. to keep the division from slowing down.

      C. to promote the production of telomerase.

      D. to prevent excessive cells copying.

      89. One key factor in creating tumor with human cells is

      A. lengthening the ends of chromosomes.

      B. altering the structure of telomeres.

      C. increasing the levels of telomerase.

      D. modulating the cell dividing process.

      90. According to the passage, the Whitehead research has taken a big step
      in

      A. understanding cancer.

      B. curing cancer disease.

      C. eliminating cancer.

      D. preventing cancer.

      PAPERTWO

      PARTV TRANSLATION (25minutes,10points)

      Directions:Put the following passage into English.Write your English
      version in the proper space on your Answer Sheet Ⅱ.

      科学是开放的知识体系,是一种属于全人类的不断进步的文化。科学是历史的,也在不断改变、塑造自身的形象。只要科学以人类的最大福祉、人性的提升为目标,科学就能重塑自我,赢得人们的依赖。但对科学的尊重不能是盲目的,赶时髦的。科学对于生产力甚至赚钱都有帮助,但科学并不沦为一种经济手段,也不沦为利益竞争对手之间的筹码。

      PARTVI WRITING (35minutes,15points)

      Directions:Write an essay of at least l50words on the topic given below.
      Use the proper space on your Answer Sheet Ⅱ.

      There is no denying that the average living standard of our country has
      greatly increased since the economic reform started20 years ago.However,
      neither is it deniable that there has been a growing contrast in income
      between the rich and the poor. What do you think of this contrast in our
      country? State your opinion with appropriate supporting details.
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